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Chandigarh University Scholarship Admission Test (CUSAT) 2019

Chandigarh University
Scholarship Admission Test (CUSAT) 2019
01 September
Registration Open for CUSAT
08:00 am
Chandigarh University, Punjab
Online Registration will be available for Students
to Apply for CUSAT
31 May
Registration Close for CUSAT
12:00 pm
Chandigarh University, Punjab
Registration will close for CUSAT.
But you can download your Hall Ticket

Eligibility

A student who has scored 50% or above in their secondary Education (10+2) from a recognized school (under affiliation of CBSE/ State Board/ICSE or others) at Chandigarh University is eligible to appear in CU-SAT.

Selection Process

CUSAT Scholarship
Academic Scholarships up-to 100% across 21 streams

The following methodology will be adopted for calculating the merit for the scholarships to be provided to the CUSAT students-
Parameters (% of marks) Weightage
CU-SAT 60%
10+2/Graduation Marks 40%
Total 100%

Scholarship Matrix

The division of scholarship will be as following-
Parameters Scholarship Offered
Top 1% students on the basis of marks will get 100%
Next 2% students students on the basis of marks will get 50%
Next 3% students students on the basis of marks will get 25%
Next 4% students students on the basis of marks will get 10%
*The students who will score above 60% in CU-SAT will be offered with 5% scholarship in the course fee.
** All the above scholarship will be offered to candidates who will score atleast 60% or above in CU-SAT.
*** Number of Scholarships offered in each stream is subject to maximum of 10% of total seats offered by the University in that stream (between streams the scholarship distribution may vary).

Syllabus for CUSAT Entrance Test
Students from Medical, Non-Medical, Commerce and Arts are eligible

✛ English

This test is designed to assess the test takers general proficiency in the use of English language as a means of self-expression in real life situations and specifically to test the test takers knowledge of basic grammar, their vocabulary, their ability to read fast and comprehend, and also their ability to apply the elements of effective writing.
Grammar
Agreement, Time and Tense, Parallel construction, Relative pronouns, Determiners, Prepositions, Modals, Adjectives, Voice, Transformation, Question tags, Phrasal verbs
Vocabulary
Synonyms, Antonyms, Odd Word, One Word, Jumbled letters, Homophones, Spelling, Contextual meaning, Analogy Reading Comprehension
Content/ideas, Vocabular, Referents, Idioms/Phrases, Reconstruction (rewording) Composition
Rearrangement, Paragraph Unity, Linkers/Connectives

✛ Mathematics

UNIT 1: SETS, RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS:
Sets and their representation; Union, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic properties; Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations,functions; oneone, into and onto functions, composition of functions.

UNIT 2: COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS:
Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals, Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers, modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex number, triangle inequality, Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions. Relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots.

UNIT 3: MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS:
Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three. Properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices.

UNIT 4: PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS:
Fundamental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection, Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r), simple applications.

UNIT 5: MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION:
Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications.

UNIT 6: BINOMIAL THEOREM AND ITS SIMPLE APPLICATIONS:
Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term,properties of Binomial coefficients and simple applications.

UNIT 7: SEQUENCES AND SERIES:
Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers. Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum upto n terms of special series: S n, S n2, Sn3. Arithmetico Geometric progression.

UNIT 8: LIMIT, CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY:
Real valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two. Rolles and Lagranges Mean Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals.

UNIT 9: INTEGRAL CALCULUS:
Integral as an anti derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities. Evaluation of simple integrals of the type. Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Properties of definite integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form.

UNIT 10: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS:
Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations. Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of homogeneous and linear differential equations of the type:
dy+ p (x) y = q (x)dx

UNIT 11: COORDINATE GEOMETRY:
Cartesian system of rectangular coordinates 10 in a plane, distance formula, section formula, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes.
Straight lines
Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines.
Circles, conic sections
Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.

UNIT 12: THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY:
Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.

UNIT 13: VECTOR ALGEBRA:
Vectors and scalars, addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product.

UNIT 14: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY:
Measures of Dispersion: Calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data.
Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Bayes theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.

UNIT 15: TRIGONOMETRY:
Trigonometrical identities and equations. Trigonometrical functions. Inverse trigonometrical functions and their properties. Heights and Distances.

UNIT 16: MATHEMATICAL REASONING:
Statements, logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if. Understanding of tautology, contradiction, converse and contrapositiv.

✛ Physics

The syllabus contains two Sections-A and B. Section-A pertains to the Theory Part having 80% weightage, while Section-B contains Practical Component (Experimental Skills) having 20% weightage.
SECTION-A ↓
UNIT 1: PHYSICS AND MEASUREMENT
Physics, technology and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units. Least count, accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement, Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

UNIT 2: KINEMATICS
Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and nonuniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion. Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a Vector. Relative Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion.

UNIT 3: LAWS OF MOTION
Force and Inertia, Newtons First Law of motion; Momentum, Newtons Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newtons Third Law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction. Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications.

UNIT 4: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, workenergy theorem, power. Potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and nonconservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

UNIT 5: ROTATIONAL MOTION
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, Centre of mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion.

UNIT 6: GRAVITATION
The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Keplers laws of planetary motion. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.

UNIT 7: PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hookes Law, Youngs modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascals law and its applications. Viscosity, Stokes law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Bernoullis principle and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension - drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat transferconduction, convection and radiation, Newtons law of cooling.

UNIT 8: THERMODYNAMICS
Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, concept of temperature. Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine and its efficiency.

UNIT 9: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work doneon compressing a gas.Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature: rms speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy,applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadros number.

UNIT 10: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES
Periodic motion - period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring -restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. - kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum - derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance. Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound

UNIT 11: ELECTROSTATICS
Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulombs law-forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field. Electric flux, Gausss law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.

UNIT 12: CURRRENT ELECTRICITY
Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohms law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance. Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoffs laws and their applications. Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge. Potentiometer - principle and its applications.

UNIT 13: MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM
Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Amperes law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earths magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances. Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.

UNIT 14: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS
Electromagnetic induction; Faradays law, induced emf and current; Lenzs Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

UNIT 15: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays). Applications of e.m. waves. Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifyingpowers. Wave optics: wavefront and Huygens principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens principle. Interference, Youngs double slit experiment and expression for fringe width. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewsters law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.

UNIT 17: DUAL NATURE OF MATTER ANDRADIATION
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenards observations; Einsteins photoelectric equation; particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particle, de Broglie relation. DavissonGermer experiment.

UNIT 18: ATOMS AND NUCLEI
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherfords model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.

UNIT 19: ELECTRONIC DEVICES
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

UNIT 20: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, Need for modulation, Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only).
SECTION-B ↓
UNIT 21: EXPERIMENTAL SKILLS
Familiarity with the basic approach and observations of the experiments and activities:
Vernier callipers-its use to measure internal and external diameter and depth of a vessel.
Screw gauge-its use to determine thickness/diameter of thin sheet/wire.
Simple Pendulum-dissipation of energy by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time.
Metre Scale - mass of a given object by principle of moments.
Youngs modulus of elasticity of the material of a metallic wire.
Surface tension of water by capillary rise and effect of detergents.
Co-efficient of Viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal velocity of a given spherical body.
Plotting a cooling curve for the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time.
Speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube.
Specific heat capacity of a given (i) solid and (ii) liquid by method of mixtures.
Resistivity of the material of a given wire using metre bridge.
Resistance of a given wire using Ohms law.
Potentiometer
     Comparison of emf of two primary cells.
     Determination of internal resistance of a cell.
Resistance and figure of merit of a galvanometer by half deflection method.
Focal length of:
     Convex mirror
     Concave mirror, and
     Convex lens using parallax method.
Plot of angle of deviation vs angle of incidence for a triangular prism.
Refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
Characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward and reverse bias.
Characteristic curves of a Zener diode and finding reverse break down voltage.
Characteristic curves of a transistor and finding current gain and voltage gain.
Identification of Diode, LED, Transistor, IC, Resistor, Capacitor from mixed collection of such items.
Using multimeter to:
     Identify base of a transistor
     See the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED.
     Check the correctness or otherwise of a given electronic component (diode, transistor or IC)

✛ Chemistry

SECTION: A (Physical Chemistry) ↓
UNIT 1: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN CHEMISTRY
Matter and its nature, Daltons atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.

UNIT 2: STATES OF MATTER
Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
Gaseous State:
Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws - Boyles law, Charles law, Grahams law of diffusion, Avogadros law, Daltons law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation; Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor and van der Waals equation.
Liquid State:
Properties of liquids - vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Solid State:
Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Braggs Law and its applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.

UNIT 3: ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom - its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohrs model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglies relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, ?? and ??2, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of ?? and ??2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d - orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals aufbau principle, Paulis exclusion principle and Hunds rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.

UNIT 4: CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCURE
Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds. Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajans rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory - Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance. Molecular Orbital Theory - Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy. Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.

UNIT 5: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes. First law of thermodynamics - Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hesss law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution. Second law of thermodynamics; Spontaneity of processes; DS of the universe and DG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, Dgo (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.

UNIT 6: SOLUTIONS
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution - molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoults Law Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure - composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions - relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, vant Hoff factor and its significance.

UNIT 7: EQUILIBRIUM
Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium. Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid -liquid, liquid - gas and solid gas equilibria, Henrys law, general characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes. Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chateliers principle. Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Br??nsted - Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid - base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.

UNIT 8: REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions. Eectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrauschs law and its applications. Electrochemical cells - Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half - cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.

UNIT 9: CHEMICAL KINETICS
Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half - lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).

UNIT-10: SURFACE CHEMISTRY
Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids - Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions. Colloidal state - distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids - lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids - Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.
SECTION-B (Inorganic Chemistry) ↓
UNIT 11: CLASSIFICATON OF ELEMENTS UNIT 11: CLASSIFICATON OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES
Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.

UNIT 12: GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF METALS
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of metals - concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.

UNIT 13: HYDROGEN
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen as a fuel.

UNIT 14: S - BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)
Group - 1 and 2 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships. Preparation and properties of some important compounds - sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.

UNIT 15: P - BLOCK ELEMENTS
Group - 13 to Group 18 Elements
General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group. Groupwise study of the p block elements
Group 13
Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; properties of boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
Group 14
Allotropes of carbon, tendency for catenation; Structure & properties of silicates, and zeolites.
Group 15
Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of phosphorus.
Group 16
Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group 17
Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.
Group 18
Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.

UNIT 16: d and f BLOCK ELEMENTS
Transition Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements - physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2Cr 2O7 and KmnO4. Inner Transition Elements Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction. Actinoids - Electronic configuration and oxidation states.

UNIT 17: CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS
Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werners theory; ligands, co-ordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).

UNIT 18: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
Environmental pollution - Atmospheric, water and soil. Atmospheric pollution - Tropospheric and Stratospheric Tropospheric pollutants Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain; Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention. Stratospheric pollution- Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer - its mechanism and effects.Water Pollution - Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention. Soil pollution - Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution.
SECTION-C (Organic Chemistry) ↓
UNIT 19: PURIFICATION AND UNIT 19: PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Purification - Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography - principles and their applications. Qualitative analysis - Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens. Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) - Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus. Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.

UNIT 20: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: - C = C - , - C h C and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism - structural and stereoisomerism. Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC) Covalent bond fission - Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles. Electronic displacement in a covalent bond - Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.

UNIT 21: HYDROCARBONS
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions. Alkanes - Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes. Alkenes - Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoffs and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis and polymerization.
Alkynes - Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization. Aromatic hydrocarbons - Nomenclature, benzene - structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel Crafts alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene.

UNIT 22: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING HALOGENS
General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions.Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform & iodoform.

UNIT 23: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses. ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration. Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer - Tiemann reaction. Ethers: Structure. Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group;Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of - hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS Acidic strength and factors affecting it.

UNIT 24: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses. Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character. Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

UNIT 25: POLYMERS
General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization-addition and condensation, copolymerization; Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses - polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.

UNIT 26: BIOMOLECULES
General introduction and importance of biomolecules. CARBOHYDRATES - Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose and maltose). PROTEINS - Elementary Idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
VITAMINS - Classification and functions.
NUCLEIC ACIDS - Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.

UNIT 27: CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE
Chemicals in medicines - Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins - their meaning and common examples.Chemicals in food - Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents - common examples. Cleansing agents - Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

UNIT 28: PRINCIPLES RELATED TO PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY
Detection of extra elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following: Inorganic compounds: Mohrs salt, potash alum. Organic compounds: Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
Chemistry involved in the titrimetric excercises - Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohrs salt vs KMnO
Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis:
Cations - Pb2+ , Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+.
Anions- CO3 2-, S2-, SO4 2-, NO2-, NO3-, CI -, Br, I. (Insoluble salts excluded).
Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:
1. Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4
2. Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base.
3. Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols.
4. Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.

✛ Hindi

✛ General Studies

Science and Society
Contemporary Problems of Indian Society
Cultural Heritage of India
Indias Freedom Struggle
Constitutional Values
Human Rights

✛ Sociology

Introducing Indian Society
     Colonialism, Nationalism, Class and Community

Demographic Structure and Indian Society
     Rural-Urban Linkages and Divisions

Social Institutions: Continuity and Change
     Family and Kinship
     The Caste System

Market as a Social Institution
     Market as a Social Institution

Pattern of Social Inquality and Exclusion
     Caste Prejudice, Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes
     Marginalization of Tribal Communities
     The Struggle for Women's Equality
     The Protection of Religious Minorities
     Caring for the Differently Abled

The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
     Problems of Communalism, Regionalism, Casteism and Patriarchy
     Role of the State in a Plural and Unequal Society
     What We Share

Structural Change
     Colonialism, Industrialization, Urbanization

Cultural Change
     Modernization, Westernization, Sanskritisation, Secularization
     Social Reform Movements and Laws

The Story of Democracy
     The Constitution as an instrument of Social Change
     Parties, Pressure Groups and Democratic Politics
     Panchayati Raj and the Challenges of Social Transformation

Change and Development in Rural Society
     Land Reforms, Green Revolution and Agrarian Society

Change and Development in Industrial Society
     From Planned Industrialization to Liberalization
     Changes in the Class Structure

Globalisation and Social Change

Mass Media and Communication Process

Social Movements
     Class-Based Movements: Workers, Peasants
     Caste-Based Movements: Dalit Movement, Backward Castes, Trends in Upper Caste
     Responses
     Women's Movements in Independent India
     Tribal Movements
     Environmental Movements

✛ Political Science

Cold War Era
Emergence of two power blocs after the second world war. Arenas of the cold war. Challenges to Bipolarity: Non Aligned Movement, quest for new international economic order. India and the cold war.

The End of Bipolarity
New entities in world politics: Russia, Balkan states and Central Asian states, Introduction of democratic politics and capitalism in post-communist regimes. India's relations with Russia and other post-communist countries.

US Hegemony in World Politics
Growth of unilateralism: Afghanistan, first Gulf War, response to 9/11 and attack on Iraq. Dominance and challenge to the US in economy and ideology. India's renegotiation of its relationship with the USA.

Alternative Centres of Power
Rise of China as an economic power in post-Maoera, creation and expansion of European Union, ASEAN. India's changing relations with China.

Contemporary South Asia in the Post-Cold War Era
Democratisation in Pakistan and Nepal. Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka, Impact of economic globalization on the region. Conflicts and efforts for peace in South Asia. India's relations with its neighbours.

International Organizations
Restructuring and the future of the UN. India's position in the restructured UN. Rise of new international actors: new international economic organisations, NGOs. How democratic and accountable are the new institutions of global governance?

Security in Contemporary World
Traditional concerns of security and politics of disarmament. Non-traditional or human security: global poverty, health and education. Issues of human rights and migration.

Environment and Natural Resources
Environment movement and evolution of global environmental norms. Conflicts over traditional and common property resources. Rights of indigenous people. India's stand in global environmental debates.

Globalisation
Economic, cultural and political manifestations. Debates on the nature of consequences of globalisation. Anti-globalisation movements. India as an arena of globalization and struggle against it.

Challenges of Nation-Building
Nehru's approach to nation-building; Legacy of partition: challenge of 'refugee' resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Organisation and reorganization of states; Political conflicts over language.

Era of One-Party Dominance
First three general elections, nature of Congress dominance at the national level, uneven dominance at the state level, coalitional nature of Congress. Major opposition parties.

Politics of Planned Development
Five year plans, expansion of state sector and the rise of new economic interests. Famine and suspension of five year plans. Green revolution and its political fallouts.

India's External Relations
Nehru's foreign policy. Sino-Indian war of 1962, Indo-Pak war of 1965 and 1971. India's nuclear programme. Shifting alliance in world politics.

Challenges to the Congress System
Political succession after Nehru. Non-Congressism and electoral upset of 1967, Congress split and reconstitution, Congress' victory in 1971 elections, politics of 'garibi hatao'.

Crisis of the Democratic Order
Search for 'committed' bureaucracy and judiciary. Navnirman movement in Gujarat and the Bihar movement. Emergency: context, constitutional and extra-constitutional dimensions, resistance to emergency. 1977 elections and the formation of Janata Party. Rise of civil liberties organisations.

Popular Movements in India
Farmers' movements, Women's movement, Environment and Development-affected people's movements. Implementation of Mandal Commission report and its aftermath.

Regional Aspirations
Rise of regional parties. Punjab crisis and the anti Sikh riots of 1984. The Kashmir situation. Challenges and responses in the North East.

Recent Developments in Indian Politics
Participatory upsurge in1990s. Rise of the JD and the BJP. Increasing role of regional parties and coalition politics. Coalition governments: NDA (1998 - 2004), UPA (2004 - 2014), NDA (2014 onwards)

✛ History

The Story of the First Cities: Harappan Archaeology
Political and Economic History: How Inscriptions tell a story
Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata
A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa
Agrarian Relations: The Ain-i- Akbari
The Mughal Court: Reconstructing Histories through Chronicles
New Architecture: Hampi
Religious Histories: The Bhakti-Sufi tradition
Medieval Society Through Travellers' Accounts
Colonialism and-Rural Society: Evidence from Official Reports
Representations of 1857
Colonialism and Indian Towns: Town Plans and Municipal Reports
Mahatma Gandhi through Contemporary Eyes
Partition through Oral Sources
The Making of the Constitution

✛ Economics

Introduction
Meaning of microeconomics and macroeconomics
What is an economy? Central problems of an economy : what, how and for whom to produce; concepts of production possibility frontier and opportunity cost.

Consumer Equilibrium and Demand
Consumer's equilibrium meaning of utility, marginal utility, law of diminishing marginal utility, conditions of consumer's equilibrium using marginal utility analysis.
Indifference curve analysis of consumer's equilibrium-the consumer's budget (budget set and budget line), preferences of the consumer (indifference curve, indifference map) and conditions of consumer's equilibrium.
Demand, market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve and its slope, movement along and shifts in the demand curve; price elasticity of demand - factors affecting price elasticity of demand; measurenment of price elasticity of demand (a) percentage-change method and (b) geometric method (linear demand curve); relationship between price elasticity of demand and total expenditure.

Producer Behaviour and Supply
Production function - Short-Run and Long-Run
Total Product, Average Product and Marginal Product.
Returns to a Factor.
Cost and Revenue: Short run costs - total cost, total fixed cost, total variable cost; Average cost; Average fixed cost, average variable cost and marginal cost-meaning and their relationship.
Revenue - total, average and marginal revenue - meaning and their relationship.
Producer's equilibrium-meaning and its conditions in terms of marginal revenue-marginal cost.
Supply, market supply, determinants of supply, supply schedule, supply curve and its slope, movements along and shifts in supply curve, price elasticity of supply; measurement of price elasticity of supply (a) percentagechange method and (b) geometric method.

Forms of Market and Price Determination
Perfect competition - Features; Determination of market equilibrium and effects of shifts in demand and supply.
Other Market Forms - monopoly, monopolistic competition, oligopoly - their meaning and features.
Simple Applications of Demand and Supply: Price ceiling, price floor.

National Income and related aggregates
Some basic concepts: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
Circular flow of income; Methods of calculating National Income Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
Aggregates related to National Income: Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross and Net Domestic Product (GDP and NDP) - at market price, at factor cost; National Disposable Income (gross and net), Private Income, Personal Income and Personal Disposable Income; Real and Nominal GDP. GDP and Welfare

Money and Banking
Money - its meaning and functions.
Supply of money - Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
Money creation by the commercial banking system.
Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker's Bank, Controller of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.

Determination of Income and Employment
Aggregate demand and its components. Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).
Shortrun equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism.
Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them - change in government spending, taxes and money supply.

Government Budget and the Economy
Government budget - meaning, objectives and components.
Classification of receipts - revenue receipts and capital receipts; classification of expenditure - revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
Measures of government deficit - revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning.

Balance of Payments
Balance of payments account - meaning and components; balance of payments deficit-meaning.
Foreign exchange rate - meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating.
Determination of exchange rate in a free market.

✛ Accountancy

Unit 1: Accounting for Partnership Firms
Partnership: features, Partnership Deed.
Provisions of the Indian Partnership Act 1932 in the absence of partnership deed.
Fixed v/s fluctuating capital accounts.Preparation of Profit and Loss Appropriation account- division of profit among partners, guarantee of profits.
Past adjustments (relating to interest on capital, interest on drawing, salary and profit sharing ratio).
Goodwill: nature, factors affecting and methods of valuation average profit, super profit and capitalization.

Accounting for Partnership firms Reconstitution and Dissolution.
Change in the Profit Sharing Ratio among the existing partners sacrificing ratio, gaining ratio, accounting for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities and treatment of reserves and accumulated profits. Preparation of revaluation account and balance sheet.
Admission of a partner effect of admission of a partner on change in the profit sharing ratio, treatment of goodwill (as per AS 26), treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities, treatment of reserves and accumulated profits, adjustment of capital accounts and preparation of balance sheet.
Retirement and death of a partner: effect of retirement / death of a partner on change in profit sharing ratio, treatment of goodwill (as per AS 26), treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities, adjustment of accumulated profits and reserves, adjustment of capital accounts and preparation of balance sheet. Preparation of loan account of the retiring partner.
Calculation of deceased partner's share of profit till the date of death. Preparation of deceased partner's capital account, executor's account and preparation of balance sheet.
Dissolution of a partnership firm: types of dissolution of a firm. Settlement of accounts -preparation of realization account, and other related accounts: capital accounts of partners and cash/bank a/c (excluding piecemeal distribution, sale to a company and insolvency of partner(s)).

Unit-2 Accounting for Companies
Accounting for Share Capital
Share and share capital: nature and types.
Accounting for share capital: issue and allotment of equity shares, private placement of shares, Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP). Public subscription of shares over subscription and under subscription of shares; issue at par and at premium, calls in advance and arrears (excluding interest), issue of shares for consideration other than cash.
Accounting treatment of forfeiture and re-issue of shares.
Disclosure of share capital in company's Balance Sheet.

Accounting for Debentures
Debentures: Issue of debentures at par, at a premium and at a discount. Issue of debentures for consideration other than cash; Issue of debentures with terms of redemption; debentures as collateral security-concept, interest on debentures.
Redemption of debentures: Lump sum, draw of lots and purchase in the open market (excluding ex-interest and cum-interest). Creation of Debenture Redemption Reserve.

Part B: Financial Statement Analysis
Unit 3: Analysis of Financial Statements
Financial statements of a company: Statement of Profit and Loss and Balance Sheet in the prescribed form with major headings and sub headings (as per Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013).
Financial Statement Analysis: Objectives, importance and limitations.
Tools for Financial Statement Analysis: Comparative statements, common size statements, cash flow analysis, ratio analysis.
Accounting Ratios: Objectives, classification and computation.
Liquidity Ratios: Current ratio and Quick ratio.
Solvency Ratios: Debt to Equity Ratio, Total Asset to Debt Ratio, Proprietary Ratio and Interest Coverage Ratio.
Activity Ratios: Inventory Turnover Ratio, Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio, Trade Payables Turnover Ratio and Working Capital Turnover Ratio.
Profitability Ratios: Gross Profit Ratio, Operating Ratio, Operating Profit Ratio, Net Profit Ratio and Return on Investment.

Unit 4: Cash Flow Statement
Meaning, objectives and preparation (as per AS 3 (Revised) (Indirect Method only)

Part B: Computerised Accounting
Unit 3: Computerised Accounting
Overview of Computerised Accounting System.
Introduction: Application in Accounting.
Features of Computerised Accounting System.
Structure of CAS.
Software Packages: Generic; Specific; Tailored.

Accounting Application of Electronic Spreadsheet.
Concept of electronic spreadsheet.
Features offered by electronic spreadsheet.
Application in generating accounting information bank reconciliation statement; asset accounting; loan
repayment of loan schedule, ratio analysis
Data representation graphs, charts and diagrams.

Using Computerized Accounting System.
Steps in installation of CAS, codification and Hierarchy of account heads, creation of accounts.
Data: Entry, validation and verification.
Adjusting entries, preparation of balance sheet, profit and loss account with closing entries and opening entries. Need and security features of the system.

Database Management System (DBMS)
Concept and Features of DBMS.
DBMS in Business Application.
Generating Accounting Information Payroll.

✛ Biology

Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive echnologies IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Downs syndrome, Turners and Klinefelters syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation lac operon; genome and human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution
Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwins contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy Weinbergs principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence drug and alcohol abuse. Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Chapter-11: Biotechnology Principles and processes
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, bio piracy and patents.

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter-14: Ecosystem
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

Chapter-16: Environmental Issues
Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).

Pattern of CUSAT Examination
Annexure-1

Time: 120 Minutes 90 Multi choice questions
Each question carries 01 mark No negative marking
Students having following qualification will appear in the test. The test consists of different modules out of which the students have to choose.
10+2 Non-Medical
English
Physics
Chemistry
Mathematics
10 questions
25 questions
25 questions
30 questions
10+2 Medical
English
Physics
Chemistry
Biology
10 questions
25 questions
25 questions
30 questions
10+2 Commerce
English
Economics
Accountancy
Commerce
10 questions
25 questions
25 questions
30 questions
10+2 Arts
General Studies
English/Hindi
10 questions
20 questions
Any two out of the following: 30 X 2 = 60 questions
Political Science
Economics
Sociology
History
Graduation in any branch who opt for MBA program
English
Quantitative Analysis
General Knowledge
Logical Reasoning
10 questions
25 questions
25 questions
30 questions

How to Apply
Annexure-1

Registration Process   |   Payment Process   |   List of Centers   |   Hall Ticket

Contact
Address : Chandigarh University, NH-95 Chandigarh-Ludhiana Highway, Mohali, Punjab (INDIA).
Mobile: +91 99159 99224
Email: cusat@cumail.in



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