This test is designed to assess the test takers’ general proficiency in the use of English language as a means of self-expression in real life situations and specifically to test the test takers’ knowledge of basic grammar, their vocabulary, their ability to read fast and comprehend, and also their ability to apply the elements of effective writing.
Agreement, Time and Tense, Parallel construction, Relative pronouns, Determiners, Prepositions, Modals, Adjectives, Voice, Transformation, Question tags, Phrasal verbs
Synonyms, Antonyms, Odd Word, One Word, Jumbled letters, Homophones, Spelling, Contextual meaning, Analogy
Content/ideas, Vocabular, Referents, Idioms/Phrases, Reconstruction (rewording)
Rearrangement, Paragraph Unity, Linkers/Connectives
UNIT 1: SETS, RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS:
Sets and their representation; Union, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic properties; Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations,functions; oneone, into and onto functions, composition of functions.
UNIT 2: COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS:
Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals, Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers, modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex number, triangle inequality, Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions. Relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots.
UNIT 3: MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS:
Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three. Properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices.
UNIT 4: PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS:
Fundamental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection, Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r), simple applications.
UNIT 5: MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION:
Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications.
UNIT 6: BINOMIAL THEOREM AND ITS SIMPLE APPLICATIONS:
Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term,properties of Binomial coefficients and simple applications.
UNIT 7: SEQUENCES AND SERIES:
Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers. Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum upto n terms of special series: S n, S n2, Sn3. Arithmetico – Geometric progression.
UNIT 8: LIMIT, CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY:
Real valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals.
UNIT 9: INTEGRAL CALCULUS:
Integral as an anti derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities. Evaluation of simple integrals of the type. Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Properties of definite integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form.
UNIT 10: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS:
Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations. Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of homogeneous and linear differential equations of the type:
dy+ p (x) y = q (x)dx
UNIT 11: COORDINATE GEOMETRY:
Cartesian system of rectangular coordinates 10 in a plane, distance formula, section formula, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes.
Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines.
Circles, conic sections
Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.
UNIT 12: THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY:
Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.
UNIT 13: VECTOR ALGEBRA:
Vectors and scalars, addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product.
UNIT 14: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY:
Measures of Dispersion: Calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data.
Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye’s theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.
UNIT 15: TRIGONOMETRY:
Trigonometrical identities and equations. Trigonometrical functions. Inverse trigonometrical functions and their properties. Heights and Distances.
UNIT 16: MATHEMATICAL REASONING:
Statements, logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if. Understanding of tautology, contradiction, converse and contrapositiv.
The syllabus contains two Sections-A and B. Section-A pertains to the Theory Part having 80% weightage, while Section-B contains Practical Component (Experimental Skills) having 20% weightage.
✛ General Studies
Science and Society
Contemporary Problems of Indian Society
Cultural Heritage of India
India’s Freedom Struggle
Introducing Indian Society
Colonialism, Nationalism, Class and Community
Demographic Structure and Indian Society
Rural-Urban Linkages and Divisions
Social Institutions: Continuity and Change
Family and Kinship
The Caste System
Market as a Social Institution
Market as a Social Institution
Pattern of Social Inquality and Exclusion
Caste Prejudice, Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes
Marginalization of Tribal Communities
The Struggle for Women's Equality
The Protection of Religious Minorities
Caring for the Differently Abled
The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
Problems of Communalism, Regionalism, Casteism and Patriarchy
Role of the State in a Plural and Unequal Society
What We Share
Colonialism, Industrialization, Urbanization
Modernization, Westernization, Sanskritisation, Secularization
Social Reform Movements and Laws
The Story of Democracy
The Constitution as an instrument of Social Change
Parties, Pressure Groups and Democratic Politics
Panchayati Raj and the Challenges of Social Transformation
Change and Development in Rural Society
Land Reforms, Green Revolution and Agrarian Society
Change and Development in Industrial Society
From Planned Industrialization to Liberalization
Changes in the Class Structure
Globalisation and Social Change
Mass Media and Communication Process
Class-Based Movements: Workers, Peasants
Caste-Based Movements: Dalit Movement, Backward Castes, Trends in Upper Caste
Women's Movements in Independent India
✛ Political Science
Cold War Era
Emergence of two power blocs after the second world war. Arenas of the cold war. Challenges to Bipolarity: Non Aligned Movement, quest for new international economic order. India and the cold war.
The End of Bipolarity
New entities in world politics: Russia, Balkan states and Central Asian states, Introduction of democratic politics and capitalism in post-communist regimes. India's relations with Russia and other post-communist countries.
US Hegemony in World Politics
Growth of unilateralism: Afghanistan, first Gulf War, response to 9/11 and attack on Iraq. Dominance and challenge to the US in economy and ideology. India's renegotiation of its relationship with the USA.
Alternative Centres of Power
Rise of China as an economic power in post-Maoera, creation and expansion of European Union, ASEAN. India's changing relations with China.
Contemporary South Asia in the Post-Cold War Era
Democratisation in Pakistan and Nepal. Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka, Impact of economic globalization on the region. Conflicts and efforts for peace in South Asia. India's relations with its neighbours.
Restructuring and the future of the UN. India's position in the restructured UN. Rise of new international actors: new international economic organisations, NGOs. How democratic and accountable are the new institutions of global governance?
Security in Contemporary World
Traditional concerns of security and politics of disarmament. Non-traditional or human security: global poverty, health and education. Issues of human rights and migration.
Environment and Natural Resources
Environment movement and evolution of global environmental norms. Conflicts over traditional and common property resources. Rights of indigenous people. India's stand in global environmental debates.
Economic, cultural and political manifestations. Debates on the nature of consequences of globalisation. Anti-globalisation movements. India as an arena of globalization and struggle against it.
Challenges of Nation-Building
Nehru's approach to nation-building; Legacy of partition: challenge of 'refugee' resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Organisation and reorganization of states; Political conflicts over language.
Era of One-Party Dominance
First three general elections, nature of Congress dominance at the national level, uneven dominance at the state level, coalitional nature of Congress. Major opposition parties.
Politics of Planned Development
Five year plans, expansion of state sector and the rise of new economic interests. Famine and suspension of five year plans. Green revolution and its political fallouts.
India's External Relations
Nehru's foreign policy. Sino-Indian war of 1962, Indo-Pak war of 1965 and 1971. India's nuclear programme. Shifting alliance in world politics.
Challenges to the Congress System
Political succession after Nehru. Non-Congressism and electoral upset of 1967, Congress split and reconstitution, Congress' victory in 1971 elections, politics of 'garibi hatao'.
Crisis of the Democratic Order
Search for 'committed' bureaucracy and judiciary. Navnirman movement in Gujarat and the Bihar movement. Emergency: context, constitutional and extra-constitutional dimensions, resistance to emergency. 1977 elections and the formation of Janata Party. Rise of civil liberties organisations.
Popular Movements in India
Farmers' movements, Women's movement, Environment and Development-affected people's movements. Implementation of Mandal Commission report and its aftermath.
Rise of regional parties. Punjab crisis and the anti Sikh riots of 1984. The Kashmir situation. Challenges and responses in the North East.
Recent Developments in Indian Politics
Participatory upsurge in1990s. Rise of the JD and the BJP. Increasing role of regional parties and coalition politics. Coalition governments: NDA (1998 - 2004), UPA (2004 - 2014), NDA (2014 onwards)
The Story of the First Cities: Harappan Archaeology
Political and Economic History: How Inscriptions tell a story
Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata
A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa
Agrarian Relations: The Ain-i- Akbari
The Mughal Court: Reconstructing Histories through Chronicles
New Architecture: Hampi
Religious Histories: The Bhakti-Sufi tradition
Medieval Society Through Travellers' Accounts
Colonialism and-Rural Society: Evidence from Official Reports
Representations of 1857
Colonialism and Indian Towns: Town Plans and Municipal Reports
Mahatma Gandhi through Contemporary Eyes
Partition through Oral Sources
The Making of the Constitution
Meaning of microeconomics and macroeconomics
What is an economy? Central problems of an economy : what, how and for whom to produce; concepts of production possibility frontier and opportunity cost.
Consumer Equilibrium and Demand
Consumer's equilibrium – meaning of utility, marginal utility, law of diminishing marginal utility, conditions of consumer's equilibrium using marginal utility analysis.
Indifference curve analysis of consumer's equilibrium-the consumer's budget (budget set and budget line), preferences of the consumer (indifference curve, indifference map) and conditions of consumer's equilibrium.
Demand, market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve and its slope, movement along and shifts in the demand curve; price elasticity of demand - factors affecting price elasticity of demand; measurenment of price elasticity of demand – (a) percentage-change method and (b) geometric method (linear demand curve); relationship between price elasticity of demand and total expenditure.
Producer Behaviour and Supply
Production function - Short-Run and Long-Run
Total Product, Average Product and Marginal Product.
Returns to a Factor.
Cost and Revenue: Short run costs - total cost, total fixed cost, total variable cost; Average cost; Average fixed cost, average variable cost and marginal cost-meaning and their relationship.
Revenue - total, average and marginal revenue - meaning and their relationship.
Producer's equilibrium-meaning and its conditions in terms of marginal revenue-marginal cost.
Supply, market supply, determinants of supply, supply schedule, supply curve and its slope, movements along and shifts in supply curve, price elasticity of supply; measurement of price elasticity of supply – (a) percentagechange method and (b) geometric method.
Forms of Market and Price Determination
Perfect competition - Features; Determination of market equilibrium and effects of shifts in demand and supply.
Other Market Forms - monopoly, monopolistic competition, oligopoly - their meaning and features.
Simple Applications of Demand and Supply: Price ceiling, price floor.
National Income and related aggregates
Some basic concepts: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
Circular flow of income; Methods of calculating National Income – Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
Aggregates related to National Income: Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross and Net Domestic Product (GDP and NDP) - at market price, at factor cost; National Disposable Income (gross and net), Private Income, Personal Income and Personal Disposable Income; Real and Nominal GDP.
GDP and Welfare
Money and Banking
Money - its meaning and functions.
Supply of money - Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
Money creation by the commercial banking system.
Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker's Bank, Controller of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.
Determination of Income and Employment
Aggregate demand and its components. Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).
Short–run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism.
Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them - change in government spending, taxes and money supply.
Government Budget and the Economy
Government budget - meaning, objectives and components.
Classification of receipts - revenue receipts and capital receipts; classification of expenditure - revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
Measures of government deficit - revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning.
Balance of Payments
Balance of payments account - meaning and components; balance of payments deficit-meaning.
Foreign exchange rate - meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating.
Determination of exchange rate in a free market.
Unit 1: Accounting for Partnership Firms
Partnership: features, Partnership Deed.
Provisions of the Indian Partnership Act 1932 in the absence of partnership deed.
Fixed v/s fluctuating capital accounts.Preparation of Profit and Loss Appropriation account- division of profit among partners, guarantee of profits.
Past adjustments (relating to interest on capital, interest on drawing, salary and profit sharing ratio).
Goodwill: nature, factors affecting and methods of valuation – average profit, super profit and capitalization.
Accounting for Partnership firms – Reconstitution and Dissolution.
Change in the Profit Sharing Ratio among the existing partners – sacrificing ratio, gaining ratio, accounting for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities and treatment of reserves and accumulated profits. Preparation of revaluation account and balance sheet.
Admission of a partner – effect of admission of a partner on change in the profit sharing ratio, treatment of goodwill (as per AS 26), treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities, treatment of reserves and accumulated profits, adjustment of capital accounts and preparation of balance sheet.
Retirement and death of a partner: effect of retirement / death of a partner on change in profit sharing ratio, treatment of goodwill (as per AS 26), treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities, adjustment of accumulated profits and reserves, adjustment of capital accounts and preparation of balance sheet. Preparation of loan account of the retiring partner.
Calculation of deceased partner's share of profit till the date of death. Preparation of deceased partner's capital account, executor's account and preparation of balance sheet.
Dissolution of a partnership firm: types of dissolution of a firm. Settlement of accounts -preparation of realization account, and other related accounts: capital accounts of partners and cash/bank a/c (excluding piecemeal distribution, sale to a company and insolvency of partner(s)).
Unit-2 Accounting for Companies
Accounting for Share Capital
Share and share capital: nature and types.
Accounting for share capital: issue and allotment of equity shares, private placement of shares, Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP). Public subscription of shares – over subscription and under subscription of shares; issue at par and at premium, calls in advance and arrears (excluding interest), issue of shares for consideration other than cash.
Accounting treatment of forfeiture and re-issue of shares.
Disclosure of share capital in company's Balance Sheet.
Accounting for Debentures
Debentures: Issue of debentures at par, at a premium and at a discount. Issue of debentures for consideration other than cash; Issue of debentures with terms of redemption; debentures as collateral security-concept, interest on debentures.
Redemption of debentures: Lump sum, draw of lots and purchase in the open market (excluding ex-interest and cum-interest). Creation of Debenture Redemption Reserve.
Part B: Financial Statement Analysis
Unit 3: Analysis of Financial Statements
Financial statements of a company: Statement of Profit and Loss and Balance Sheet in the prescribed form with major headings and sub headings (as per Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013).
Financial Statement Analysis: Objectives, importance and limitations.
Tools for Financial Statement Analysis: Comparative statements, common size statements, cash flow analysis, ratio analysis.
Accounting Ratios: Objectives, classification and computation.
Liquidity Ratios: Current ratio and Quick ratio.
Solvency Ratios: Debt to Equity Ratio, Total Asset to Debt Ratio, Proprietary Ratio and Interest Coverage Ratio.
Activity Ratios: Inventory Turnover Ratio, Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio, Trade Payables Turnover Ratio and Working Capital Turnover Ratio.
Profitability Ratios: Gross Profit Ratio, Operating Ratio, Operating Profit Ratio, Net Profit Ratio and Return on Investment.
Unit 4: Cash Flow Statement
Meaning, objectives and preparation (as per AS 3 (Revised) (Indirect Method only)
Part B: Computerised Accounting
Unit 3: Computerised Accounting
Overview of Computerised Accounting System.
Introduction: Application in Accounting.
Features of Computerised Accounting System.
Structure of CAS.
Software Packages: Generic; Specific; Tailored.
Accounting Application of Electronic Spreadsheet.
Concept of electronic spreadsheet.
Features offered by electronic spreadsheet.
Application in generating accounting information – bank reconciliation statement; asset accounting; loan
repayment of loan schedule, ratio analysis
Data representation – graphs, charts and diagrams.
Using Computerized Accounting System.
Steps in installation of CAS, codification and Hierarchy of account heads, creation of accounts.
Data: Entry, validation and verification.
Adjusting entries, preparation of balance sheet, profit and loss account with closing entries and opening entries. Need and security features of the system.
Database Management System (DBMS)
Concept and Features of DBMS.
DBMS in Business Application.
Generating Accounting Information – Payroll.
Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction – asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction – binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation
of fruit; special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
Chapter-3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).
Chapter-4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP);
amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive echnologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans –thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene
expression and regulation – lac operon; genome and human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.
Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern
synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift;
Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.
Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of
immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.
Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and processes
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, bio piracy and patents.
Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).
Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
Chapter-16: Environmental Issues
Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).